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News and Opinions about MS, Health & Disability

Wife who is carer is really a wonderful, loving, angel

It’s been an eventful few days for the two of us at home here in Spain.

On Saturday, nine days ago, my beloved Lisa asked me to help put the washing out to dry. It’s an easy job that I can do sitting down, so I readily agreed. The trouble was that it was not one of my best days. Thanks to multiple sclerosis, I managed to fall while walking out of the back door onto our terrace.

I still have no idea how but the nail of the big toe on my left foot was torn upright. It was 90 degrees from its usual position. There was pain and blood – and plenty of the red stuff.

carerMy wife Lisa is also my carer and is quite used to me spending time on the floor and could not see my injury, so she didn’t rush to my side. But she certainly arrived fast enough when I told her what was wrong.

In next to no time, she had stopped the bleeding and strapped up my toe. Luckily, once bandaged, the pain eased so that it only hurt if touched.

Wife and carer is an angel

A couple of days later, I visited our doctor. He removed the dressing and the nail came off with it. The wound started to bleed again but he quickly stopped it and sent me to a nurse to get it redressed. That started a series of one visit every two days, something I had to get used to here. The Spanish health service goes the extra mile to see that patients receive the best treatment.

However, these regular visits to the health centre are putting more stress on Lisa. Lifting my electric wheelchair out of, and back into, our car is a task that should not be repeated often. Meanwhile, at home, she is doing virtually all the work. She is my carer and refuses to ask me to help in case I am hurt again. In fact, while doing anything involving standing or walking is difficult, I try to do what I can.

One thing though, Lisa is always so grateful for whatever help I can give. But all she does for me makes her even more than my loving wife and carer.

She is my wonderful, loving, guardian angel who walks here on earth.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor in the print media. He gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Ian received a diagnosis of MS in 2002 and now lives in the south of Spain. He uses a wheelchair and advocates on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Tackling wider medical subjects, not just MS

You may notice on this page that, besides running this website, I now write for Medical News Today. This is instead of Multiple Sclerosis News Today (MSNT).

And while the two titles appear similar, there is no connection. Indeed, they are published by two separate companies.

I spent 10 months recruiting and building a team of patient columnists for MSNT and its sister titles, as well as managing and editing their content. Now, I am now concentrating on writing quality specialist articles for a market leading medical publication.

Medical News Today

medical news todayAs a features writer for Medical News Today (MNT), I am producing authoritative articles, about a variety of illnesses, for the digital publication’s much-respected Knowledge Center.

Founded in 2003, MNT has established itself as a market leader for medical news. It provides concise and accurate information that stands out in the ocean of content that is health on the internet.

Content is targeted to an educated audience of both healthcare professionals and patients. The editorial team provides news from evidence-based, peer-reviewed studies, along with accurate, unbiased and informative content from governmental organisations (e.g. FDA, CDC, NIH, NHS), medical societies, royal colleges, professional associations, patients’ groups, pharmaceutical and biotech companies, among others.

All areas of health and medicine

Medical News Today produces original, timely and authoritative information from respected and credible sources. The editorial team has a strict code of practice and covers all areas of health and medicine, including rare diseases and conditions. It strives to achieve coverage across all areas of human health, and its main content areas include:

  • News content produced and curated daily by its in-house editorial team. It publishes more than 60 articles per day.
  • Reference material covering issues that you find important – produced in-house and licensed.
  • Features and in-depth investigative reporting on health and lifestyle.
  • Opinions forums – allowing you to connect with other users.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor in the print media. He gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Ian received a diagnosis of MS in 2002 and now lives in the south of Spain. He uses a wheelchair and advocates on mobility and accessibility issues.

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It’s World MS Day, does it really matter?

Today is World MS Day. And this should be an important day for raising awareness of multiple sclerosis in countries around the globe. But that is not what is happening.

world ms dayEven though the supposedly special day is coordinated by the MS International Federation (MSIF) and has its own website, the national charities prefer to concentrate on their own activities.

Just look at the World MS Day website list of these activities:

MS Carnation Campaign, Canada

From 11-13 May, the MS Society of Canada mobilised people across the nation to support the MS Carnation Campaign for Mother’s Day.

Theatre for MS, Egypt

Throughout April, the MS Care Society Egypt raised awareness of the stigma surrounding MS and other conditions by organising theatrical performances featuring people with MS.

Book Launch: “Endless story of MS”, Slovakia

From 11-12 May, the MS Society of Slovakia marked the launch of “Endless story with MS”. It is a book full of personal stories of people with MS.

Wellness Seminar, India

On 14 May, the Mumbai Chapter of the MS Society of India (MSSI) organised an educational seminar on methods for managing MS, led by renowned medical & health practitioners in Mumbai.

Solidarity Fundraising Walk, Portugal

On 30 April, people took to the streets of Peso da Régua, Portugal, for a solidarity fundraising walk in honour of World MS Day.

As strange as it may seem, the fact is that not one of those activities is being held on World MS Day itself. The website does not list any event being held today.

Additionally, major national organizations are embracing their own awareness events.

Just take a look at these examples:

  • USA – National MS Awareness Month held in March.
  • Canada -National MS Month held in May.
  • UK – MS Awareness Week held in March.
  • New Zealand – Awareness Week held in August.

With support of that magnitude, or lack of it, I really think the MSIF should drop the idea of World MS Day. Clearly, it does not have necessary international support.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor in the print media. He gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Ian received a diagnosis of MS in 2002 and now lives in the south of Spain. He uses a wheelchair and advocates on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Social care plans ‘ignore working-age disabled people’

Campaigners are denouncing the Conservatives for ignoring the social care needs of working-age disabled people. The issue does not get a mention in the party’s manifesto for next week’s UK general election.

Conservative leader and prime minister Theresa May got in hot water last week for making a U-turn, which she called a ‘clarification’. It was over the manifesto policy on charging older people for social care.

So, the party’s social care polices now face attack on two fronts. This is because neither the original manifesto, nor that U-turn made any mention of working-age disabled people.

Disability consultant Jane Young told the Disability News Service (DNS) that the manifesto demonstrates ‘ignorance of adult social care services’.

She said: “Anyone reading it would assume that only older people use social care services, when in reality one-third of social care service-users are disabled people of working age.

“We’re left completely in the dark as to how the proposals will affect disabled people, including those who’ve had their support reduced following the closure of the Independent Living Fund.

No acknowledgement of social care role

“While disabled people’s employment is mentioned elsewhere in the manifesto, there’s no acknowledgement of the role of social care in enabling many disabled people to work.

“All we have are questions: Will there be different arrangements for working-age service-users?

“How will the proposals affect disabled service-users with mortgages, or when they sell their home and buy another?

“Will adult social care be better funded, so it can enable independent living rather than mere existence?

“After decades of well-meaning reports, culminating in the Dilnot report and the Care Act 2014, we’re once again thrown into uncertainty.

“We expect more than a manifesto that conveniently ignores us,” she said.

social care

Sue Bott of the DRUK.

Deputy chief executive of Disability Rights UK, Sue Bott, said there was “No information at all about younger people in” the manifesto.

She believes most of the public are unaware that younger disabled people had to pay for their social care.

Further, she said, the social care system is ‘grossly underfunded’, and that younger disabled people pay more in charges than older people with care needs. This is because older people are allowed to keep more of their money through a generous minimum income guarantee.

Bott added: “If it was realised how much  people had to pay in charges, they would be pretty outraged. It wouldn’t fit in with the ‘scroungers and strivers’ narrative.

Completely unacceptable

“The current situation [with charging]is completely unacceptable. It seems almost out of control.

“The [Conservative] narrative is ‘we are supporting the people most in need’, but they are not, because what they are doing is giving with one hand and taking away with the other in the form of social care charges.”

Asked why the manifesto makes no mention of the social care needs of working-age disabled people, a Conservative party spokeswoman told DNS: “Our manifesto has committed to making sure nobody has to sell their family home to pay for care.

“We will make sure there’s an absolute limit on what people need to pay.  And you will never have to go below £100,000 of your savings, so you will always have something to pass on to your family.”

That reply, of course, failed to answer the question, but the we cannot really expect honesty, can we?

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Mixed messages about beta-interferon safety to treat MS

Research that is meaningful is essential. It is what, after all, what we need to find a cure for multiple sclerosis and other debilitating diseases.

However, a new study from the University of British Columbia, Canada, puzzles me. The study “Evaluating the safety of beta-interferons in MS” looked at potential adverse events when treating relapsing remitting MS (RRMS).

When the findings were published in Neurology, they came with a strangely conflicting narrative.

Let me explain.

Increased risk

The study found an increased risk of events such as stroke, migraine and depression, as well as abnormalities in the blood, when beta-interferon is taken for MS. The team discovered this by analysing the health records of more than 2,000 British Columbians with MS between 1995 and 2008.

beta-interferon

Professor Helen Tremlett.

So, that’s not so good. But Professor Helen Tremlett, senior author of the study, said that beta-interferons have a favourable safety profile, especially compared to the newer therapies for MS. And she added: “That is still the case; our study does not change that.

“However, very few studies had comprehensively and quantitatively assessed their safety in real world clinical practice. Our findings complement and extend on previous observations.”

Tremlett is a Professor in the department of medicine at the Djavad Mowafaghian Centre in Brain Health. She also said: “Once a drug is released on the market, there are very few ways to systematically monitor adverse events. 

“Clinical trials cannot identify all adverse effects of a drug treatment partly due to small sample sizes and relatively short follow-up periods.”

Beta-interferon research undermined?

So, the study shows that people taking beta-interferon for MS are at great risk of having a stroke, migraine and depression, as well as abnormalities in the blood. But they stress that patients and physicians should not change their treatment plans. They say that the risk to individual patients will vary greatly depending on individual factors.

To me that attitude, of ‘yes, the risks are greater but never mind’, devalues the results. In fact, to my mind, it undermines the whole study. The question I must ask is: why waste money on research if you are going to go against the results?

On the plus side, besides the negative effects, Tremlett and her colleagues made a positive discovery. They found a reduced risk of bronchitis and upper respiratory infections with taking beta-interferon for more than two years. These infections can be common and problematic for people living with multiple sclerosis.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Two new studies increase our understanding of MS

New studies may be good news for those of us living with multiple sclerosis as they increase understanding of it.

One pinpoints a mutation responsible for neurological dysfunction. Meanwhile, the second says high levels of a protein may contribute to MS progression.

study

Professor Ian Duncan.

Ian Duncan is professor of neurology in the department of medical sciences at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He has pinpointed the cause of a serious neurological disease. The disease is very similar to multiple sclerosis, and found in a colony of rats. The study, “A mutation in the Tubb4a gene leads to microtubule accumulation with hypomyelination and demyelination (pages 690–702)”, is published in this month’s Annals of Neurology.

The human disease, called H-ABC, can affect parts of the brain. Both conditions arise from mutations in the same gene. And both abnormalities affect myelin, as seen in MS.

Professor Duncan examined the nervous system tissue from both conditions and revealed an overgrowth of tiny tubes known as mircotubulas in oligodendrocytes,. These are the cells that make myelin and deposit it on nerve fibres.

Myelin defects are also at the root of the leukodystrophies — genetic disorders that include H-ABC.

Knowing how oligodendrocytes form and maintain myelin, and how those essential processes go awry, “could open a new window of understanding on the more widespread myelin diseases,” Duncan added.

Protein may encourage MS progression

The second study found that high levels of a protein called Rab32 may contribute to the progression of MS. And this could lead to neuronal loss.

The study, “Rab32 connects ER stress to mitochondrial defects in multiple sclerosis,” was published in the Journal of Neuroinflammation.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays a part in producing new proteins, and stores calcium. ER stress is a hallmark of MS and several other neurodegenerative diseases.

Now, researchers at the University of Alberta, Canada, suggest that the ER may play a role in triggering mitochondria impairment, leading to MS.

Professor Thomas Simmen.

Thomas Simmen, associate professor in the department of cell biology, is senior author. He said: “Scientists have been pointing to the mitochondria as a possible link to MS. But they have not been able to decipher how it malfunctions. Ours is the first study that combines clinical and lab experiments to explain how mitochondria become defective in MS patients.”

Using brain tissue samples from MS patients and healthy individuals, the team quantified levels of Rab32 and monitored neuronal death.

Results indicate higher Rab32 levels have links to an increase in ER stress proteins and inflammation in the MS brain. However, virtually no Rab32 was present in brain tissue from healthy individuals.

ER stress has strong links to an increase of Rab32 and MS progression that can lead to mitochondrial impairment and neuronal death. What’s more, these findings may prove useful in designing novel strategies to prevent neuronal loss in MS.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, a Features Writer with Medical News Today. He has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Election 2017: Labour to reform welfare benefits and end freeze

benefits

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All three main UK political parties have put stated their plans for state welfare benefits, should they win the general election.

Of course, realistically only the existing government Conservatives or the major opposition Labour party, can win. The Liberal Democrats have no chance. I have ignored the UK Independence Party (UKIP) as polls show its support has collapsed.

Labour’s shadow chancellor (finance minister) John McDonnell says his first budget will include a package of reforms, in effect ending the present government’s freeze on benefits. The freeze on working-age benefits started in 2016, and welfare payments are capped at their current rate until 2019.

Speaking on the BBC TV’s Andrew Marr show, Mr McDonnell spoke of Labour’s proposals. He said the party ‘would ensure that in effect we would be addressing ….. how we reverse the benefit freeze itself’.

Benefits reform package

He said: “We’re putting £30bn in over the lifetime of a parliament into welfare. We’re reforming the whole process ….. and the implication will be ….. the impact of these proposals will make the freeze irrelevant.

“I want to do it as part of an overall reform package and not just pick off one by one.”

Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn said the freeze is ‘unfair’ and ‘would be ended’.

Manifesto pledges

The party’s manifesto includes pledges costing £48.6 bn, to be funded from extra tax revenue.

Labour’s manifesto also includes plans to scrap the bedroom tax and, restore housing benefit for those under 21. It includes, too, an increase in Personal Independence Payment for peole living with disabilities.

According to the Conservative manifesto, Theresa May’s party has “no plans for further radical welfare reform”. It will continue to roll-out of Universal Credit – the much-maligned single monthly payment to replace many other benefits.

The Liberal Democrats also say they’d end the benefits freeze and reverse disastrous welfare cuts made by the current government.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, who is Features Writer for Medical News Today. He has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Loss of spinal nerve fibres not only cause of disability in MS – new research

Disability from multiple sclerosis may be caused by more than loss of spinal nerve fibres, new research shows.

This could mean the use of MRI scans to predict disability from MS may not be as reliable as thought.

The research questions the belief that, in MS, loss of spinal axons, or nerve fibres, is the key factor in levels of chronic disability.

This has led to the wide use of MRI to measure the cross-sectional area of the spinal cord in order to predict disability. But researchers from Queen Mary University of London have now sampled spinal cords of 13 people with MS and 5 healthy controls. They found that spinal cord cross-sectional area is not a good predictor of axonal loss.

spinal cord

Klaus_Schmierer.

Results of the research “Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited” were published in Brain Pathology on May 7.

Lead researcher Klaus Schmierer said: “The lack of association between axonal loss and spinal cord cross-sectional area significantly changes our understanding of chronic disability in MS.

Disability imbalance between MS and spinal cord trauma

“The nature of the spinal cord needs to be appreciated as a highly organised and largely autonomous network . We need to identify other factors over and above axonal loss. Factors that determine the collapse of the spinal cord network and lead to the functional deficits seen in MS.

“In spinal cord trauma, people with less than 10% of axons, may still be able to have lower limb movement. But MS patients with up to 40% of their axons retained are almost invariably wheelchair-bound, as shown in our study. So, there is clearly something happening here which we’ve yet to understand.”

Finding other factors causing the chronic disability seen in MS, it could help identify targets for new treatments.

The team’s preliminary results indicate the loss of synaptic connections in the spinal cords of people with MS is substantial. It is possible that further research could determine is this is the missing link that is driving disability.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, who has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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Protect Disability Benefits – No More Cuts

Signing petitions and adding my name to open letters is not really my thing That’s not to say that I never do, just that it has to be a cause with which I agree totally. Now, I find that I have endorsed two – and urge you to do the same.

With the general election getting ever closer, the UK’s MS Society, along with other members of the Disability Benefits Consortium, is inviting you to sign an open letter to party leaders, urging them to protect disability benefits. The letter calls for no more cuts in the next UK Government. 

The consortium is a national coalition of more than 80 charities and organisations. It is standing up for more than 13 million disabled people in the UK, who spend an average of £550 a month on costs related to their disability. That’s #13millionlives.

When the MS Society asked what issues matter at this election, hundreds made contact, one issue that stood out above all others – no more cuts to disability benefits.

The society’s chief executive Michelle Mitchell said: “Financial support is vital for people with MS to live independent lives and participate fully in society.

“We have a crucial opportunity to make our voice heard before the election. We’re urging party leaders to protect disability benefits from further cuts in the next Parliament.”

I have added my name, will you join me?

Add your name to the open letter to party leaders. Tell the next government to make no more cuts to disability benefits. 

To add your name, and call for no more cuts, click on this logo: 

 

no more cuts

 

In a similar vein, there is a petition started by Dorothy Jump that has so far gained more than 28,000 signatures – including mine.

It concerns indefinite awards of Disability Living Allowance (DLA). As part of the process of switching from DLA to Personal Independence Payment, the so-called indefinite awards are being reviewed; they are no longer regarded as indefinite.

Dorothy’s petition is to ‘stop the change to indefinite claim on Disability Living Allowance Benefit’.

This, I have also signed. You can join me, by clicking this logo: no more cuts

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, who has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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MS: Emergency hospital admissions continue to rise

Emergency hospital admissions for people with MS are rising in a major part of the UK. So says new research published by the MS Trust and Wilmington Healthcare. These admissions cause distress, and cost the NHS millions. Yet many could be avoided.

admissionsThe report shows that emergency hospital admissions for people with MS in England increased by 12.7% over the two years to 2015/16.

The latest English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES) data says there were 26,679 emergency hospital admissions for people with MS in England in 2015/16, compared to 23,665 in 2013/14, and this cost the NHS a total of £46m.

The report maintains that a large part of this emergency care could be avoided with better proactive, preventative healthcare.

Report is staggering

Some of the report’s findings are staggering. Of people with MS who had an emergency admission to hospital in 2015/2016:

  • Urinary tract infections accounted for 14% and cost £2,639 per patient;
  • Respiratory issues cost the National Health Service (NHS) a total of £5.4m;
  • Bladder and bowel related issues cost £10.4m.

The report found that 20% of 89,030 people with MS in England were admitted to hospital as emergencies in 2015/16. The average cost per admission was £1,733 and the average length of stay was 8.2 days.

Wilmington Healthcare’s Commissioning Excellence Directorate CEO Sue Thomas said: “Our latest report shows that the problems we highlighted in our original 2013/14 analysis have increased in the past couple of years. A growing number of patients with MS go to hospital for emergency care; yet many admissions could be avoided.

“Preventative care strategies for people with MS must be reviewed in order to tackle problems, such as respiratory and urinary tract infections, at an early stage to try to avert the need for emergency care. This would not only be of huge benefit to patients, it would also reduce pressure on struggling A&E departments.”

MS Trust ‘disappointed’ that admissions are increasing

MS Trust chief executive Pam Macfarlane said: “It is disappointing to see that avoidable emergency hospital admissions for people with MS have continued to rise in 2015/16.

“Last November, the MS Trust brought together partners from across the MS sector to publish the MS Forward View consensus. This showed that people with MS need a flexible blend of care, comprising disease modification and also proactive symptom management and neurorehabilitation, delivered by multidisciplinary teams.

“This is one reason why we are now funding additional MS nurses in areas of the UK where services are the most overstretched. Only with the right specialist and community based support will we reduce the need for emergency hospital care for people with MS,” she said.

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Affiliate disclaimer: This affiliate disclosure details the affiliate relationships of MS, Health & Disability at 50shadesofsun.com with other companies and products. Read more.

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50shadesofsun.com is the personal website of Ian Franks, who has enjoyed a successful career as a journalist, from reporter to editor, in the print media. During that career he gained a Journalist of the Year award in his native UK. Diagnosed with MS in 2002, he continued to work until mobility problems made him retire early in late 2006. He now lives in the south of Spain. Besides MS, Ian is also able to write about both epilepsy and cardiovascular matters from a patient’s perspective. Besides that, he is a keen advocate on mobility and accessibility issues.

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